Arapaima gigas is a carnivorous fish that naturally inhabits the lowland with slow-flowing waters of the Amazon River basin in South America, occurring in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru. It is a long-living species with parental care – especially by males – often referred to as one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world. It was already introduced to Bolivia, China, Cuba, Mexico, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, but the main producer is still Brazil. A. gigas has great economic and cultural importance, presenting some characteristics which are advantageous for aquaculture, such as the best growth rate among the Amazonian farmed fish species, a great tolerance to handling and ammonia concentrations, a fillet with no intramuscular bones, and a mild flavour. This fish is also tolerant to low dissolved oxygen levels due to its obligatory aerial breathing. A. gigas is harvested as JUVENILES and is commercialised mainly as fillet. The active fishing has reduced its population size and the occurrence of large individuals over the years, especially around the populated regions of the Amazon. Because this fish appears in the CITES II section (strictly regulated and controlled commerce), its aquaculture development must rely solely on spontaneous reproduction in captivity. Further research about home range, density of aggregation, and aggression in the wild is still needed. Moreover, nothing is known about a possible high-standard slaughter method for this species or the malformation rates under farming conditions.