Hoven's carp

Leptobarbus hoevenii

Leptobarbus hoevenii (Hoven's carp)
Distribution
no distribution map available
least concern



Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: C | 1.0 (2022-12-10)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.


Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

First published: 2022-12-10
Version information:
  • Appearance: C
  • Major version 1 published: 2022-12-10

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Leptobarbus hoevenii (Farm: Short Profile). In: fair-fish database, ed. fair-fish. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-12-10. Version C | 1.0. https://fair-fish-database.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Leptobarbus hoevenii
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Leptobarbus hoevenii is a tropical freshwater carp that is native to Asia waters. It is a BENTHOPELAGIC fish that can be found in lakes, rivers, streams and floodplains of Malaysia, Indonesia, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. The populations of this carp have decreased over the years probably due to increasing human activities, such as construction of dams, deforestation, use of fertilisers and pesticides for farming, and mass exploitation of this fish. Its flesh is rich in protein, vitamin B, and minerals, but probably because of eating parenchyma and seeds of the chaulmoogra tree (Hydnocarpus) falling into the streams, this carp is reported to become intoxicated, so that eating its flesh can cause nausea in humans. Despite that, L. hoevenii has a high commercial value among the cyprinids that have been successfully bred for farming, being an important species for aquaculture in several Southeast Asian countries. Cambodians and Vietnamese praise this fish highly. Moreover, this carp has already been introduced into several countries, as Taiwan and China, both for aquaculture and as an ornamental species. However, important wild and farm information about this carp is still missing in the literature, like home range and substrate use in natural conditions and more specific data about wild aggregation patterns as well as aggression, stress response, and malformation rates under farming conditions. Therefore, further research is needed to better evaluate and improve the welfare of L. hoevenii.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: fine-mesh cage fitted into concrete tanks: 8 m(4 x 2 m) 1 2; tanks (for conservation purposes): 2,100 L 3FRY: tanks: 5 tonnes 4. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 5; tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: floating cages: 3 m2 (1.5 x 2 m sections in overall 4.5 x 4 m cage) 6, 25 m2 (5 x 5 m; for conservation purposes) 3; tanks: 1 ton 7.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet..
  • FARM: ponds: 400-4000 m2 4 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Fine-mesh cage fitted into concrete tanks: 8 m2 (4 x 2 m) 1, ​net cage inside concrete tanks: 1.2 m2 (2 x 0.6 m) 8 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 5; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 5; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m2 (4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m ∅ 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: does not apply. ​



2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: semi-buoyant 9.
  • FARM: net cage or fine-mesh cage inside concrete tanks: 1 m 1 8 2.
  • LAB: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: in shallow areas of lakes 10.
  • FARM: shifted from staying at the pelagic to the middle layer of water column 2; net cage or fine-mesh cage inside concrete tanks: 1 m 1 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 5; tanks: 1.2 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILDPELAGIC 9 11 or BENTHOPELAGIC 12-7 13-7 3. 3 m 11, in shallow areas of lakes 10.
  • FARM: floating cages: 0.6 m 6, 2 m (for conservation purposes) 3.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILDPELAGIC 9 11 or BENTHOPELAGIC 12-7 13-7 3. 3 m 11.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: net cage or fine-mesh cage inside concrete tanks: 1 m 1 8 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 5; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 5; breeding tanks: 1 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well. 
  • LAB: does not apply.



3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 13 14 9.

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: net cage or fine-mesh cage inside concrete tanks: 26.5-29 °C 1 2, 25-28 °C 15-1LARVAE: net cage inside concrete tanks: 28 °C 8. For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: 11-14 PHOTOPERIOD 3 11, 23-26 °C 11, fresh water 11
  • FARM: floating cages: 25.8-26.7 °C 6. For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD:  JUVENILES.
  • FARM: earthen ponds: 25-33 °C 16 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS). For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILDIND migrate to spawn on flooded areas 10.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Net cage inside concrete tanks: 28 °C  8. For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES: does not apply.

ADULTS: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: ​spawn once per year 10 in floodplains 10 17 9 in June 17, but also reported to spawn during the rainy season 3 9, May-September 9 or November-December 10
  • FARM: sex ratio: 1:1 1 or 2 males:1 female 2. Multiple spawner 8 18. Hormonal manipulation 1 8 2 followed by water spray over the net cage to imitate rain fall 8 2. No stripping 1 8 2. For carps in general, in storage tanks, spawners are kept separated by sex 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: large mixed schools with Barbonymus schwanenfeldi 10.
  • FARM: FRY: group swimming behaviour 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: shoals 11, large mixed schools with B. schwanenfeldi 10.
  • FARM: floating cages: 10 IND/m6, 20 IND/m2 (for conservation purposes) 3; tanks: 200 IND/tank of 1 ton capacity 7.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: shoals 11.
  • FARM: ponds: 0.06 IND/m19 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS:  ADULTS.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: larger IND chased after smaller or weaker IND and bit its tail or abdomen 2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no aggression reported in polyculture with Cyprinus carpio and Labeo rohita 16 18 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: hatching funnels 4, probably without substrate. For carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well. For details of holding systems ➝ S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: in plankton-rich areas of lakes 10.
  • FARM: LARVAE: trays 4, probably without substrate. FRY: tanks 4, probably without substrate; earthen ponds 4. For details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD:  LARVAE and FRY.
  • FARM: floating cages: transparency 0.1-0.4 m 6. For details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS: earthen ponds 4 16 8 18. For details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. For details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM: common slaughter method: for Labeo rohita 20, with which L. hoevenii is commonly reared, asphyxia on ice. For the related C. carpio, 85% are sold alive, of the 15% processed in plants 21, the common methods are a) asphyxia (followed by evisceration 21 or percussive killing 22), b) percussive stunning (followed by evisceration 21 23, gill cut or destruction of the heart 23), and c) electrical stunning (followed by evisceration 21 23, gill cut or destruction of the heart 23). Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well. High-standard slaughter method: for C. carpio, electrical plus percussive stunning (followed by evisceration, gill cut or destruction of the heart) 23 or immersion in clove oil (followed by percussive killing 22). Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to L. hoevenii as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 2 24, level 5 being fully domesticated.




Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes:

  • WILD: herbivorous​​​​​ 11 or omnivorous 12-7 17 13-7 3 9.
  • FARM: no data found yet
  • LAB: no data found yet



Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHOPELAGIC = living and feeding near the bottom of a body of water, floating above the floor
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 2 = part of the life cycle closed in captivity, also known as capture-based aquaculture 24
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
PELAGIC = living independent of bottom and shore of a body of water
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults during the spawning season; in farms: adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



Bibliography


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