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Peruvian anchoveta

Engraulis ringens

Engraulis ringens (Peruvian anchoveta)
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Distribution
Distribution map: Engraulis ringens (Peruvian anchoveta)

least concern



Information


Author: Jenny Volstorf
Version: A | 0.1 (2023-11-08) (pre-release version)


Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Initial release: 2023-11-08
Version information:
  • Appearance: A

Cite as: »Volstorf, Jenny. 2023. Engraulis ringens (WelfareCheck | catch: Purse seines). In: fair-fish database, ed. fair-fish. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2023-11-08. Version A | 0.1 (pre-release). https://fair-fish-database.net.«





WelfareScore | catch

Engraulis ringens
× Purse seines
LiPoCe
Criteria
Prospection
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Setting
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Catching
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Emersion
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Release from gear
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Bycatch avoidance
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Sorting
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Discarding
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Storing
score-li
score-po
score-ce
Slaughter
score-li
score-po
score-ce


Legend

Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in fisheries, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

  • Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal catching conditions
  • Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard catching conditions
  • Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

WelfareScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

score-legend
High
score-legend
Medium
score-legend
Low
score-legend
Unclear
score-legend
No findings



General remarks

Engraulis ringens is the most heavily targeted single fish species in the oceans. It is distributed along the coasts of Peru and Chile in the immensely productive Humboldt current system, a stream carrying cold water from the Antarctic and upwelling deep and nutrient-rich water to the surface. Here, E. ringens finds the preferred cold water and the preferred prey zooplankton. In years of El Nino and in summer, when warm water spreads, E. ringens migrates closer to the coast to stay in cold water layers. Because E. ringens lives in schools, fishing folks predominantly use purse seining to catch it, which imposes the risk of catching under-sized IND. In fact, the target size entails JUVENILES as well as ADULTS. What concerns bycatch of non-target species, E. ringens is the main prey for some penguins, dolphins, boobies, birds, sea lions, and seals among others. These species are in danger of being accidentally caught by the E. ringens fishery, especially by the wooden (32.6-110 m3 holding capacity) or steel industrial fleet (90-870 m3) which catches E. ringens for fish meal production. The wooden small- (<10 m3) and medium-scale fleet (10-32.6 m3) catches E. ringens for direct human consumption and seldomly causes bycatch of larger species than jellyfish. Besides the high density inside the purse seine during hauling and especially during crowding causing injuries and stress, E. ringens will be easy prey for adjacent predators. Transfer to the vessel mainly happens via pumps which avoids contact with air, but the arrival on deck or in the storage containers is most likely stressful and may lead to injuries. Further research is needed on welfare hazards and their consequences. E. ringens is brought to land without prior stunning or slaughter. A protocol for both, stunning and slaughter, is urgently needed.




1  Prospection

To find the fishes in their habitat, there are different techniques to localise them (e.g., echosound/sonar, chasing).

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during the process of searching for the species?

It is unclear for minimal and high-standard catching conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Noise: no data found yet.

Echosound/sonar:
  • Within 40 m from 43.6 m long scientific trawler, no horizontal avoidance behaviour from schools when acoustically surveyed with vertical echosounder and multi-beam sonar, but within 5-10 m from the vessel, vertical avoidance by diving to 5 m compared to usual 2 m 1. Behaviour is probably rather due to making room for the vessel volume than "predator" avoidance 1.

Chasing: no data found yet.

Decreasing distance to neighbour: no data found yet.

Other: no data found yet.




2  Setting

Catching methods differ in the way they are set up and consequently in the time it takes for setting them.

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during the process of setting the catching method?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard catching conditions.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Escape avoidance measures: no data found yet.

Decreasing distance to neighbour: no data found yet.

Other: no data found yet.




3  Catching

Given the principle of the catching method, the gear (with the fishes caught) may be hauled vertically or horizontally in the water for a certain amount of time and distance.

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during catching?

It is low for minimal catching conditions given lack of care for good welfare and if the mesh size overlaps with the body diameter of JUVENILES. It is medium for high-standard catching conditions given bigger mesh size, no risk of barotrauma, as suctioning into the storage prevents handling under air exposure, and as taking more care to increase welfare is easily imaginable, but needs to be verified for the catching context. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Contact with the gear (hooking, contact with the net/trap):
  • Given body diameter of ~1.3 cm 2-3 and mesh size of 1.6 cm 4 or 1.3 cm 5, JUVENILES getting stuck in the net is probable 6 7.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: prefer mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.
Speed:
  • Given the principle of purse seine to catch at the surface 6 7, there is no risk of barotrauma 11 12.

Duration: no data found yet.

Decreasing distance to neighbour (continuum up to crushing):
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.

Abrupt temperature change: no data found yet.

Abrupt salinity change: no data found yet.

Other:
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning it could increase the risk of lack of care during the catching process leading to injuries 10.



4  Emersion

The process of bringing the fishes out of the water also depends on the catching method and may, thus, differ in duration and impact (e.g., netting, brailing, pumping, lifting).

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during emersion?

It is low for minimal catching conditions given predation pressure during hauling, high crowding density close to the ship, and high speed at suctioning in the storage space. It is medium for high-standard catching conditions, a) as suctioning into the storage prevents handling under air exposure, b) given mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region, and c) as keeping crowding as short as possible and avoiding high densities as well as taking more care to increase welfare is easily imaginable, but needs to be verified for the catching context. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Crowding (deliberate step before getting the fishes out of the water):
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.
    • Related to consequence:  
Predation pressure:
  • Given the principle of purse seine to catch IND at the surface and slowly haul the seine close to the ship 6 7 8 and thus no way of fleeing predators, there is the risk of stress by predators being present in or close to the net 10.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: for ways to avoid predators in the net ➝ 6.7. Other.
Attacks by con-specifics:
  • Given that JUVENILES aggregate with ADULTS in schools 15 16 17, aggression between conspecifics is unlikely 10.

Light exposure: no data found yet.

Lack of oxygen: no data found yet.

Contact with the gear:
  • Given body diameter of ~1.3 cm 2-3 and mesh size of 1.6 cm 4 or 1.3 cm 5, JUVENILES getting stuck in the net is probable 6 7.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: prefer mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.
  • Probably no sorting but direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8. Given the speed with which IND arrive on deck or slide down chutes respectively and based on the crowding density, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on gear settings, on types of hazard consequences, and on how to avoid a decrease in welfare.

Experience its own weight: no data found yet.

Decreasing distance to neighbour (continuum up to crushing):
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.
  • Probably no sorting but direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8. Given the speed with which IND arrive on deck or slide down chutes respectively and based on the crowding density, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on gear settings, on types of hazard consequences, and on how to avoid a decrease in welfare.
Other:
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning it could increase the risk of lack of care during the catching process leading to injuries 10.



5  Release from gear

There are different ways to remove the fishes from the gear (e.g., unhooking, disentangling, dropping).

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during release from the gear?

It is low for minimal catching conditions given lack of care for good welfare and if the mesh size overlaps with the body diameter of JUVENILES. It is medium for high-standard catching conditions given mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region and as taking more care to increase welfare is easily imaginable, but needs to be verified for the catching context. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Dropping (from net to deck/storage):
  • Some IND are catapulted away from the chute and lie on deck, some IND are kicked or stood on by fishing folks 18 6 7 8. Further research needed on gear settings, on mortality rate, and on how to avoid mortality.
Handling (unhooking/touching/disentangling):
  • Some IND are catapulted away from the chute and lie on deck, some IND are kicked or stood on by fishing folks 18 6 7 8. Further research needed on gear settings, on mortality rate, and on how to avoid mortality.
Other:
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning it could increase the risk of lack of care during the catching process leading to injuries 10.
  • Given body diameter of ~1.3 cm 2-3 and mesh size of 1.6 cm 4 or 1.3 cm 5, JUVENILES getting stuck in the net is probable 6 7.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: prefer mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region



6  Bycatch avoidance

Not all specimens of the target species are equally sought after, e.g., when they are undersized, of wrong sex, wrong age, damaged or over quota. Measures to prevent this bycatch still in the water may include slipping in purse seine, window in net, opening in trap, etc.

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare with the help of bycatch-avoiding measures?

It is low for minimal catching conditions if the mesh size overlaps with the body diameter of JUVENILES. It is medium for high-standard catching conditions given mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES (given body diameter in season) and given hydroacoustic scanning, sampling, gentle slipping, landing obligations, and bycatch limits. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Lack of oxygen: no data found yet.

Contact with the gear:
  • Given body diameter of ~1.3 cm 2-3 and mesh size of 1.6 cm 4 or 1.3 cm 5, JUVENILES getting stuck in the net is probable 6 7.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: prefer mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region

Decreasing distance to neighbour (continuum up to crushing): no data found yet.

Handling (unhooking/touching/disentangling): no data found yet.

Displacement: no data found yet.

Predation pressure: no data found yet.

Other:
  • After setting the net and in the initial stages of hauling, skippers or captains can get an impression of the catch by looking at a sample of fishes that come to the surface. At that point, they can abort the process if the catch does not include the target species and before the school is crowded 11.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: sampling
  • Given that the TOTAL LENGTH of JUVENILES of 7.4-12.3 cm 19 overlaps with the size at catching of 6.3-19.3 cm 20 and as JUVENILES aggregate with ADULTS in schools 15 16 17 and the principle of purse seine is to catch whole schools 6 7, there is a risk of bycatch (accidental catch of undersized, wrong sex, wrong age, damaged, over quota IND) of the target species 10. Bycatch and discards may be reduced by hydroacoustic electronic scanning for identification of school in terms of species and size composition, sampling of individuals within the purse seine, gentle slipping of unwanted catch through modifications of the purse seine, landing obligation for the whole catch plus compliance incentives 5. Peruvian law’s bycatch limit: 5% of total catch 21.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: hydroacoustic scanning, sampling, gentle slipping, landing obligation, bycatch limit



7  Sorting

Given the species specificity of the method, sorting might be necessary once the catch arrives on deck.

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during sorting?

It is low for minimal catching conditions even if sorting does not exist, but given lack of care for good welfare after suctioning on board. It is medium for high-standard catching conditions, as taking more care to increase welfare is easily imaginable, but needs to be verified for the catching context. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Handling:
  • Some IND are catapulted away from the chute and lie on deck, some IND are kicked or stood on by fishing folks 18 6 7 8. Further research needed on gear settings, on mortality rate, and on how to avoid mortality.
Dropping (from deck to storage):
  • Some IND are catapulted away from the chute and lie on deck, some IND are kicked or stood on by fishing folks 18 6 7 8. Further research needed on gear settings, on mortality rate, and on how to avoid mortality.
Other:
  • Probably no sorting but direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8. Given the speed with which IND arrive on deck or slide down chutes respectively and based on the crowding density, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on gear settings, on types of hazard consequences, and on how to avoid a decrease in welfare.



8  Discarding

If bycatch of the target species could not be prevented, the individuals could still be returned from the gear/deck to the water.

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during discarding?

It is high under minimal and high-standard catching conditions, as processing into fish meal prevents discards due to wrong size, wrong sex, wrong age, and damaged IND. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Handling: no data found yet.

Displacement: no data found yet.

Predation pressure: no data found yet.

Other:
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning also accidentally caught undersized, wrong sex, wrong age, damaged IND may be used which reduces discards (and thus mortality) 10.
    • Related to consequence:  
    • How to improve: use as fish meal



9  Storing

Given how long it takes the vessel to return to the harbour, the caught fishes have to be stored for a certain amount of time. This storing happens most frequently with the fishes still being alive, but differeing in the type of storage containers and medium (ice, brine, air, etc.).

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during storing?

It is low for minimal catching conditions given lack of care for good welfare and given live storage. It is medium for high-standard catching conditions, as taking more care to increase welfare is easily imaginable, but needs to be verified for the catching context. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Decreasing distance to neighbour (continuum up to crushing): no data found yet.

Contact with the storing container: no data found yet.

Exposure to the storing medium (air, ice, brine etc.):
  • Storage space of the ship usually without refrigeration: ca 10% of small- and medium-scale vessels provide ice, industrial fleet seldomly has refrigerating system installed 14. Given ice, temperature shock is probable, but prefereable over asphyxia 10.
Other:
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning it could increase the risk of lack of care during the catching process leading to injuries 10.
  • 2-4 hauls/trip before returning to shore 4, 1 trip of 12-24 h per day 23. Given this duration in live storage, hazard consequences are probable 10.
    • Related to consequence:  



10  Slaughter

Ideally, slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under catching conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress.

What is the probability of avoiding a decrease in welfare during stunning/slaughter?

It is low for minimal and high-standard catching conditions, as there is no protocol for immediate stunning – followed by slaughter while still unconscious – reported in the literature. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihoodscore-li
Potentialscore-po
Certaintyscore-ce

Stunning:
  • Direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8, so probably no stunning and slaughter but asphyxia 10.
Slaughter:
  • Direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8, so probably no stunning and slaughter but asphyxia 10.



11  Side note: Uncategorised catching step

Sometimes the literature does not specify the welfare hazards and the catching step that lead to hazard consequences.

What are consequences that decrease welfare during uncategorised steps of the catching process?

No data found yet.


12  Side note: General improvements of the method

The focus of this WelfareCheck | catch is the welfare of the target species. There could be improvements to the catching method that are not covered by the criteria and could include prevention of bycatch of non-target species, e.g., pingers to deter cetaceans, and avoiding damage to the environment, though.

What are these improvements?

To decrease suffering, the best is to avoid catching IND in the first place which could mean for the target species to close fishery during spawning season. For non-target species, it could mean hydroacoustic scanning, sampling, gentle slipping, landing obligations, and bycatch limits. To reduce fuel consumption, the industrial fleet is to be preferred due to lower fuel consumption/t FISHES – it does have larger overall fuel consumption than small- to medium-scale fisheries, though.
  • target species: In 2000-2008, employing a spawning-related closure of fishing season protected 57% eggs spawned (10.0-14.0 cm females: 67% eggs protected, >14 cm females: 50% eggs protected) 24. Correlation of egg production with recruits into schools indicates effectiveness of closing season for ensuring good recruitment and preventing overexploitation 24. Closure of fishing season continues to be applied and depends on reaching total allowable catch or a fixed date [Molinari 2021] 25.
    • How to improve: spawning-related closure of fishing seasons
  • target and non-target species: In 2005-2010, in small-scale (holding capacity <10 m3) and medium-scale fleet (10-32.6 m3), fuel consumption/t FISHES increased with size of vessel (from 14.7 kg fuel/t FISHES to 17.2-29.0 kg fuel/t FISHES), in wooden industrial fleet (32.6-110 m3), fuel consumption decreased (from 15.3 to 10.1 kg fuel/t FISHES), similar trend in factors climate change, terrestrial acidification, natural land transformation, freshwater eutrophication, human and ecotoxicity, still: small- and medium-scale fleet amounted to 11,000 t fuel/year, industrial fleet to 84,000 t fuel/year 14Given the amount of fuel consumption per year, there is the risk of fuel leaks that could potentially have a large impact on local fauna 10.
    • How to improve: industrial fleet with lower fuel consumption/t FISHES, but larger overall fuel consumption than small- to medium-scale fisheries
  • target and non-target species: For purse seine fishery in Western and Central Pacific, in 2003-2015, >10,000 pollution incidents including 71% dumped waste (mainly plastics), 16% oil spillages and leakages, 13% abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear 26. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to E. ringens and purse seine fishery off Peru and Chile as well. Lost fishing gear could potentially have a large impact on local fauna through ghost fishing. In survey among experts from Peru artisanal fishery, anchovy purse seine was voted among active fishing gear with most impact on local fauna 27.
  • non-target species: Given the principle of purse seine to catch whole schools 6 7, there is the risks to also include co-existing, preyed-on, and predating species 10.
    Usable bycatch: In industrial fleet, bycatch of scyphomedusa Chrysaora plocamia fluctuates in frequency seasonally (5.3% of catching weight in austral summer 2008-2009) and may inflict large economic losses by having bycatch weight subtracted from catching weight (from ca 13% proportion C. plocamia on) and by discarding catch when containing >40% C. plocamia 13. In 1997-2010, catch of small-scale fleet consisted of 11% Scomber japonicus, 7% Trachurus murphyi, 2% Odontesthes regia regia, all used for direct human consumption; industrial fleet with limited bycatch; bycatch of Anchoa nasus by small- and medium-scale fleets sold as fish meal 14.
    Non-usable bycatch: bycatch of Delphinus delphis at rate of 58/19 hauls and of Otaria flavescens at 1/19 hauls 4. In industrial company in 2012, Delphinus delphis at ca 640 IND/year 14. In industrial and artisanal fishery off Chile in 2015-2017, 1,500+ Ardenna creatopus (IUCN: vulnerable) 28-29 30-29. This non-target species bycatch may be reduced (but not completely avoided) through various methods ➝ 6.7. Other. Of 58 accidentally caught Delphinus delphis, 75.7% escaped unharmed by fishermen lowering or raising the net, 19% escaped with lesions 4. Of 58 accidentally caught Delphinus delphis in 19 hauls, 3 died (death rate 0.16/haul, 0.38/fishing trip), of 1 Otaria flavescens in 19 hauls, 1 died (0.05/haul, 0.13/trip) 4. In 2005-2019 off Chilean coast (18-53°S), 13,548 beached Ardenna grisea, 2,115 Spheniscus magellanicus, 1,639 Phalacrocorax bougainvilli, of which A. grisea and S. magellanicus showed high spatial overlap (93% and 72%) and A. grisea showed high temporal correlation (0.6) with combined industrial and artisanal fishery of E. ringens and Strangomera bentincki 31. Welfare hazards including mortality are best avoided by preventing bycatch. Further research needed on gear settings and on other co-existing, preyed-on, and predating species. 
    • How to improve: hydroacoustic scanning, sampling, gentle slipping, landing obligation, bycatch limit
  • non-target species: Given the principle of purse seine to catch at the surface (avoid the bottom) 6 7, seabed damage or impact on benthos respectively is unlikely 10. When fishing takes place over the shelf or in shallower water, the bottom may be touched 10. The net is not dragged along the seafloor 6 7 8, though, so huge impact on benthos is unlikely 10.



13  Side note: Commercial relevance

How much is this species targeted annually?

5,547,661 t/year 2016 amounting to estimated 193,029,000,000-554,766,000,000 IND/year 2016 32.



Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals
FISHES = Using "fishes" instead of "fish" for more than one individual - whether of the same species or not - is inspired by Jonathan Balcombe who proposed this usage in his book "What a fish knows". By referring to a group as "fishes", we acknowledge the individuals with their personalities and needs instead of an anonymous mass of "fish".
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals
TOTAL LENGTH = from snout to tip of caudal fin as compared to fork length (which measures from snout to fork of caudal fin) or standard length (from head to base of tail fin) or body length (from the base of the eye notch to the posterior end of the telson) 22



Bibliography


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2 Harder, W. 1960. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Morphologie des Darmes bei Clupeoidea. Z. wiss. Zool. 163: 65–167.
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10 Volstorf, Jenny. 2023. Conclusion.
11 Marçalo, Ana. 2023. Personal communication.
12 Pica, Andrea. 2023. Personal communication.
13 Quiñones, Javier, Aldrin Monroy, E. Marcelo Acha, and Hermes Mianzan. 2013. Jellyfish bycatch diminishes profit in an anchovy fishery off Peru. Fisheries Research 139: 47–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.04.014.
14 Fréon, Pierre, Angel Avadí, Wilbert Marin Soto, and Richard Negrón. 2014. Environmentally extended comparison table of large- versus small- and medium-scale fisheries: the case of the Peruvian anchoveta fleet. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 1459–1474. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0542.
15 Mathisen, Ole A. 1989. Adaptation of the anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) to the Peruvian upwelling system. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions, 220–234. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18. WorldFish.
16 Bertrand, Arnaud, François Gerlotto, Sophie Bertrand, Mariano Gutiérrez, Luis Alza, Andres Chipollini, Erich Díaz, et al. 2008. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales. Progress in Oceanography 79. The Northern Humboldt Current System: Ocean Dynamics, Ecosystem Processes, and Fisheries: 264–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2008.10.018.
17 Fablet, Ronan, Paul Gay, Salvador Peraltilla, Cecilia Peña, Ramiro Castillo, and Arnaud Bertrand. 2012. Bags-of-Features for fish school cluster characterization in pelagic ecosystems: application to the discrimination of juvenile and adult anchovy (Engraulis ringens) clusters off Peru. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69: 1329–1339. https://doi.org/10.1139/f2012-064.
18 Valla, Raul. 2014. Asi se pesca la anchoveta en el Perú.
19 Plaza, Guido, Francisco Cerna, Mauricio F. Landaeta, Alejandra Hernández, and Jorge E. Contreras. 2018. Daily growth patterns and age-at-recruitment of the anchoveta Engraulis ringens as indicated by a multi-annual analysis of otolith microstructure across developmental stages. Journal of Fish Biology 93: 370–381. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13773.
20 Pauly, Daniel, and Maria Lourdes Palomares. 1989. New estimates of monthly biomass, recruitment and related statistics of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) off Peru (4-14°S), 1953-1982. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions, 189–206. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18. WorldFish.
21 Young, Jeff, and Kees Lankaster. 2013. Catch Shares in Action: Peruvian Anchoveta Northern-Central Stock Individual Vessel Quota Program. Environmental Defense Fund.
22 Pawson, M.G., and G.D. Pickett. 1996. The Annual Pattern of Condition and Maturity in Bass, Dicentrarchus Labrax, in Waters Around England and Wales. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 76: 107. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400029040.
23 Csirke, Jorge. 1989. Changes in the catchability coefficient in the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fishery. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions. WorldFish.
24 Perea, Á, C. Peña, R. Oliveros-Ramos, B. Buitrón, and J. Mori. 2011. Potential egg production, recruitment, and closed fishing season of the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens): Implications for fisheries management. Ciencias marinas 37: 585–601.
25 Veterinaria Digital. 2022. The first anchoveta fishing season in Peru successfully progresses. Veterinaria Digital.
26 Richardson, Kelsey, David Haynes, Anthony Talouli, and Michael Donoghue. 2017. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015. Ambio 46: 190–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0811-8.
27 Céspedes, Carlos Martín Salazar, Julio Alarcón Velez, and Germán Chacón Nieto. 2015. Workshop of the classification of the fishing gears of the Peruvian artisanal fishery.
28 Vega, R., L. Ossa, B. Suárez, A. González, S. Henríquez, R. Ojeda, M. A. Jiménez, A. Ramírez, J. Le-Bert, and A. Simeone. 2018. Informe Final - Convenio de Desempeño 2017. Programa de observadores científicos 2017-2018. Programa de investigación del descarte y captura de pesca incidental en pesquerías pelágicas. Programa de monitoreo y evaluación de los planes de reducción del descarte y de la pesca incidental 2017-2018. Valparaíso, Chile: Instituto de Fomento Pesquero.
29 Carle, Ryan D., Jonathan J. Felis, Rodrigo Vega, Jessie Beck, Josh Adams, Verónica López, Peter J. Hodum, Andrés González, Valentina Colodro, and Tiare Varela. 2019. Overlap of Pink-footed Shearwaters and central Chilean purse-seine fisheries: Implications for bycatch risk. The Condor 121: duz026. https://doi.org/10.1093/condor/duz026.
30 Suazo, Cristián G., Luis A. Cabezas, Carlos A. Moreno, Javier A. Arata, Guillermo Luna Jorquera, Alejandro Simeone, Luis Adasme, et al. 2014. Seabird bycatch in Chile: a synthesis of its impacts, and a review of strategies to contribute to the reduction of a global phenomen. Pacific Seabirds 41: 1–12.
31 Simeone, Alejandro, Cristóbal Anguita, Maximiliano Daigre, Paulina Arce, Rodrigo Vega, Guillermo Luna-Jorquera, Matías Portflitt-Toro, Cristián G. Suazo, Diego Miranda-Urbina, and Mauricio Ulloa. 2021. Spatial and temporal patterns of beached seabirds along the Chilean coast: Linking mortalities with commercial fisheries. Biological Conservation 256: 109026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109026.
32 Mood, A., and P. Brooke. 2023. Fishcount.org.uk.


Information


Author: Jenny Volstorf
Version: A | 0.1 (2023-11-08) (pre-release version)

Please note: This view of the WelfareCheck was generated automatically from the default view.




1  Physical damage

As a consequence of welfare hazards, fishes may suffer from physical damage (e.g., barotrauma, abrasions/lacerations/wounds, ecchymosis, desiccation).

Where in the catching process does physical damage occur and how to avoid it?

Physical damage occurs most frequently during contact with the gear and a decreasing distance to neighbours and given lack of care for good welfare. To avoid it, prefer mesh size that avoids catching JUVENILES given body diameter in season and region and take more care to increase welfare. Further research needed.


1.1 Barotrauma

Extruded eyes/gutsno data found yet.

Ruptured swim bladderno data found yet.

Bleedingno data found yet.

Unspecified
  • Given the principle of purse seine to catch at the surface 6 7, there is no risk of barotrauma 11 12.

1.2 Damages/abrasions/lacerations/wounds

Eye damageno data found yet.

Skin damageno data found yet.

Scale lossno data found yet.

Broken spineno data found yet.

Unspecified
  • Given body diameter of ~1.3 cm 2-3 and mesh size of 1.6 cm 4 or 1.3 cm 5, JUVENILES getting stuck in the net is probable 6 7.
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning it could increase the risk of lack of care during the catching process leading to injuries 10.
  • Given that JUVENILES aggregate with ADULTS in schools 15 16 17, aggression between conspecifics is unlikely 10.
  • Probably no sorting but direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8. Given the speed with which IND arrive on deck or slide down chutes respectively and based on the crowding density, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on gear settings, on types of hazard consequences, and on how to avoid a decrease in welfare.

1.3 Ecchymosis

Bruising and discoloration of the skin due to squeezingno data found yet.


1.4 Desiccation (surface issue)

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




2  Stress

Stress is a likely consequence of various welfare hazards. It may be measured via physiological parameters (cortisol, glucose, lactate, etc.) or behavioural observations (e.g., opercular movement).

Where in the catching process does stress occur and how to avoid it?

Stress occurs most frequently during contact with the gear and a decreasing distance to neighbour (incl. crowding). Further research needed for ways to avoid it. When it comes to bycatch of the target species, to decrease suffering, the best is to avoid catching IND in the first place by hydroacoustic scanning, sampling, gentle slipping, landing obligations, and bycatch limits.

Cortisol, glucose, lactate, other physiological stress parametersno data found yet.

Opercular movementno data found yet.

Unspecified
  • Given the principle of purse seine to haul the net close to the ship and crowd the IND before suctioning them into the storage space of the ship 6 7 8, taking 2-3 h/haul 9, average 90 min/haul 4, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on types of hazard consequences and on how to avoid them.
  • Given the principle of purse seine to catch IND at the surface and slowly haul the seine close to the ship 6 7 8 and thus no way of fleeing predators, there is the risk of stress by predators being present in or close to the net 10.
    • Catching step:  
    • How to improve: for ways to avoid predators in the net ➝ 6.7. Other.
  • Probably no sorting but direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8. Given the speed with which IND arrive on deck or slide down chutes respectively and based on the crowding density, hazard consequences are probable 10. Further research needed on gear settings, on types of hazard consequences, and on how to avoid a decrease in welfare.
  • After setting the net and in the initial stages of hauling, skippers or captains can get an impression of the catch by looking at a sample of fishes that come to the surface. At that point, they can abort the process if the catch does not include the target species and before the school is crowded 11.
  • Given that the TOTAL LENGTH of JUVENILES of 7.4-12.3 cm 19 overlaps with the size at catching of 6.3-19.3 cm 20 and as JUVENILES aggregate with ADULTS in schools 15 16 17 and the principle of purse seine is to catch whole schools 6 7, there is a risk of bycatch (accidental catch of undersized, wrong sex, wrong age, damaged, over quota IND) of the target species 10. Bycatch and discards may be reduced by hydroacoustic electronic scanning for identification of school in terms of species and size composition, sampling of individuals within the purse seine, gentle slipping of unwanted catch through modifications of the purse seine, landing obligation for the whole catch plus compliance incentives 5. Peruvian law’s bycatch limit: 5% of total catch 21.
    • Catching step:  
    • How to improve: hydroacoustic scanning, sampling, gentle slipping, landing obligation, bycatch limit
  • 2-4 hauls/trip before returning to shore 4, 1 trip of 12-24 h per day 23. Given this duration in live storage, hazard consequences are probable 10.



3  Temperature shock

The difference between temperature in water and air may induce a thermal shock.

Where in the catching process does temperature shock occur and how to avoid it?

Temperature shock may occur during storing, but is prefereable over asphyxia. Further research needed.

Unspecified
  • Storage space of the ship usually without refrigeration: ca 10% of small- and medium-scale vessels provide ice, industrial fleet seldomly has refrigerating system installed 14. Given ice, temperature shock is probable, but prefereable over asphyxia 10.



4  Osmoregulatory distress

The quick transition from one salinity level to another may lead to osmoregulatory distress.

Where in the catching process does osmoregulatory distress occur and how to avoid it?

There is no conclusion yet.

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




5  Disorientation

Removing an individual from its home ground and social group and subjecting it to a potentially stressful catching event may result in disorientation.

Where in the catching process does disorientation occur and how to avoid it?

There is no conclusion yet.

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




6  Asphyxia

Lack of oxygen is a likely consequence for aquatic species facing removal from the water.

Where in the catching process does asphyxia occur and how to avoid it?

Asphyxia most likely occurs instead of a proper stunning/slaughter protocol. To avoid it, prefer immediate stunning followed by slaughter while the IND is still unconscious. Further research needed

Behaviour indicating lack of oxygen (gulping, tail beating, etc.)no data found yet.

Intolerance towards lower concentrations of oxygenno data found yet.

Unspecified
  • Direct pumping into the storage space of the ship 13 18 6 7 8, so probably no stunning and slaughter but asphyxia 10.



7  Dehydration (internal issue)

Loss of water is another likely consequence of exposing aquatic species to air.

Where in the catching process does dehydration occur and how to avoid it?

There is no conclusion yet.

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




8  Fatigue/exhaustion

In an attempt to escape the situation of being caught, many individuals struggle and resist until they are exhausted.

Where in the catching process does fatigue/exhaustion occur and how to avoid it?

There is no conclusion yet.

Inactivity/low vitalityno data found yet.

Oxidative stressno data found yet.

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




9  Emotion-like states

The process of being caught probably induces states not unlike emotions.

Where in the catching process do emotion-like states occur and how to avoid them?

Fear may occur during prospection. Further research needed for ways to avoid it.


9.1 Fear (continuum up to panic)

Freezeno data found yet.

Avoidance behaviour
  • Within 40 m from 43.6 m long scientific trawler, no horizontal avoidance behaviour from schools when acoustically surveyed with vertical echosounder and multi-beam sonar, but within 5-10 m from the vessel, vertical avoidance by diving to 5 m compared to usual 2 m 1. Behaviour is probably rather due to making room for the vessel volume than "predator" avoidance 1.

Escape manoeuvresno data found yet.

Startling behaviourno data found yet.

Unspecifiedno data found yet.


9.2 Other

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




10  Mortality

Although killing is the ultimate goal of fisheries, many mortalities happen unwanted - even resulting in discards - and unregulated, without avoiding prolonged suffering.

Where in the catching process does mortality occur and how to avoid it?

Mortality occurs most frequently during handling. (Mortality due to attacks by con-specifics and due to discards are unlikely.) To avoid it, take more care to increase welfare. Further research needed.

Unspecified
  • Given that JUVENILES aggregate with ADULTS in schools 15 16 17, aggression between conspecifics is unlikely 10.
  • Some IND are catapulted away from the chute and lie on deck, some IND are kicked or stood on by fishing folks 18 6 7 8. Further research needed on gear settings, on mortality rate, and on how to avoid mortality.
  • E. ringens is mostly processed into fish meal 13 14, so there probably is no non-usable bycatch of the target species, meaning also accidentally caught undersized, wrong sex, wrong age, damaged IND may be used which reduces discards (and thus mortality) 10.
    • Catching step:  
    • How to improve: use as fish meal



11  Uncategorised behavioural changes

When it is difficult to assign an observed behaviour to one of the above categories, we report it here.

Where in the catching process do uncategorised behavioural changes occur and how to avoid them?

There is no conclusion yet.

Unspecifiedno data found yet.




Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals
FISHES = Using "fishes" instead of "fish" for more than one individual - whether of the same species or not - is inspired by Jonathan Balcombe who proposed this usage in his book "What a fish knows". By referring to a group as "fishes", we acknowledge the individuals with their personalities and needs instead of an anonymous mass of "fish".
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals
TOTAL LENGTH = from snout to tip of caudal fin as compared to fork length (which measures from snout to fork of caudal fin) or standard length (from head to base of tail fin) or body length (from the base of the eye notch to the posterior end of the telson) 22



Bibliography


1 Gerlotto, F., J. Castillo, A. Saavedra, M.A. Barbieri, M. Espejo, and P. Cotel. 2004. Three-dimensional structure and avoidance behaviour of anchovy and common sardine schools in central southern Chile. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 1120–1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.07.017.
2 Harder, W. 1960. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Morphologie des Darmes bei Clupeoidea. Z. wiss. Zool. 163: 65–167.
3 Pauly, Daniel, Astrid Jarre, Susan Luna, Victor Sambilay, Jr., Blanca Rojas de Mendiola, and Alejandro Alamo. 1989. On the quantity and types of food ingested by Peruvian anchoveta, 1953-1982. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions, 109–124. ICLAM Conference Proceedings 18. WorldFish.
4 González-But, Juan Carlos, and Maritza Sepúlveda. 2016. Incidental capture of the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the industrial purse seine fishery in northern Chile. Revista de biología marina y oceanografía 51: 429–433. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572016000200019.
5 Ramírez, Daniel Aguilar, and J. C. Barrera-Guevara. 2018. Alternativas tecnológicas para el control de descartes y reducción de captura de juveniles en la pesquería de anchoveta. Síntesis Ejecutiva –versión en español para Oceana Perú. OCEANA - Protegiendo los Océanos del Mundo.
6 TASA. 2018. Conoce Nuestro Proceso de Cala 2018.
7 Saldaña, Melendes. 2020. faena de pesca.
8 Yangua, Denis Chuquihuanga. 2020. Pesca de anchoveta en peru.
9 Santander, H., J. Alheit, A. D. MacCall, and A. Alamo. 1983. Egg mortality of the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) caused by cannibalism and predation by sardines (Sardinops sagax). 291. FAO Fisheries Report. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the  United Nations.
10 Volstorf, Jenny. 2023. Conclusion.
11 Marçalo, Ana. 2023. Personal communication.
12 Pica, Andrea. 2023. Personal communication.
13 Quiñones, Javier, Aldrin Monroy, E. Marcelo Acha, and Hermes Mianzan. 2013. Jellyfish bycatch diminishes profit in an anchovy fishery off Peru. Fisheries Research 139: 47–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.04.014.
14 Fréon, Pierre, Angel Avadí, Wilbert Marin Soto, and Richard Negrón. 2014. Environmentally extended comparison table of large- versus small- and medium-scale fisheries: the case of the Peruvian anchoveta fleet. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 1459–1474. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0542.
15 Mathisen, Ole A. 1989. Adaptation of the anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) to the Peruvian upwelling system. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions, 220–234. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18. WorldFish.
16 Bertrand, Arnaud, François Gerlotto, Sophie Bertrand, Mariano Gutiérrez, Luis Alza, Andres Chipollini, Erich Díaz, et al. 2008. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales. Progress in Oceanography 79. The Northern Humboldt Current System: Ocean Dynamics, Ecosystem Processes, and Fisheries: 264–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2008.10.018.
17 Fablet, Ronan, Paul Gay, Salvador Peraltilla, Cecilia Peña, Ramiro Castillo, and Arnaud Bertrand. 2012. Bags-of-Features for fish school cluster characterization in pelagic ecosystems: application to the discrimination of juvenile and adult anchovy (Engraulis ringens) clusters off Peru. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69: 1329–1339. https://doi.org/10.1139/f2012-064.
18 Valla, Raul. 2014. Asi se pesca la anchoveta en el Perú.
19 Plaza, Guido, Francisco Cerna, Mauricio F. Landaeta, Alejandra Hernández, and Jorge E. Contreras. 2018. Daily growth patterns and age-at-recruitment of the anchoveta Engraulis ringens as indicated by a multi-annual analysis of otolith microstructure across developmental stages. Journal of Fish Biology 93: 370–381. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13773.
20 Pauly, Daniel, and Maria Lourdes Palomares. 1989. New estimates of monthly biomass, recruitment and related statistics of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) off Peru (4-14°S), 1953-1982. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions, 189–206. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18. WorldFish.
21 Young, Jeff, and Kees Lankaster. 2013. Catch Shares in Action: Peruvian Anchoveta Northern-Central Stock Individual Vessel Quota Program. Environmental Defense Fund.
22 Pawson, M.G., and G.D. Pickett. 1996. The Annual Pattern of Condition and Maturity in Bass, Dicentrarchus Labrax, in Waters Around England and Wales. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 76: 107. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400029040.
23 Csirke, Jorge. 1989. Changes in the catchability coefficient in the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fishery. In The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions. WorldFish.
24 Perea, Á, C. Peña, R. Oliveros-Ramos, B. Buitrón, and J. Mori. 2011. Potential egg production, recruitment, and closed fishing season of the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens): Implications for fisheries management. Ciencias marinas 37: 585–601.
25 Veterinaria Digital. 2022. The first anchoveta fishing season in Peru successfully progresses. Veterinaria Digital.
26 Richardson, Kelsey, David Haynes, Anthony Talouli, and Michael Donoghue. 2017. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015. Ambio 46: 190–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0811-8.
27 Céspedes, Carlos Martín Salazar, Julio Alarcón Velez, and Germán Chacón Nieto. 2015. Workshop of the classification of the fishing gears of the Peruvian artisanal fishery.
28 Vega, R., L. Ossa, B. Suárez, A. González, S. Henríquez, R. Ojeda, M. A. Jiménez, A. Ramírez, J. Le-Bert, and A. Simeone. 2018. Informe Final - Convenio de Desempeño 2017. Programa de observadores científicos 2017-2018. Programa de investigación del descarte y captura de pesca incidental en pesquerías pelágicas. Programa de monitoreo y evaluación de los planes de reducción del descarte y de la pesca incidental 2017-2018. Valparaíso, Chile: Instituto de Fomento Pesquero.
29 Carle, Ryan D., Jonathan J. Felis, Rodrigo Vega, Jessie Beck, Josh Adams, Verónica López, Peter J. Hodum, Andrés González, Valentina Colodro, and Tiare Varela. 2019. Overlap of Pink-footed Shearwaters and central Chilean purse-seine fisheries: Implications for bycatch risk. The Condor 121: duz026. https://doi.org/10.1093/condor/duz026.
30 Suazo, Cristián G., Luis A. Cabezas, Carlos A. Moreno, Javier A. Arata, Guillermo Luna Jorquera, Alejandro Simeone, Luis Adasme, et al. 2014. Seabird bycatch in Chile: a synthesis of its impacts, and a review of strategies to contribute to the reduction of a global phenomen. Pacific Seabirds 41: 1–12.
31 Simeone, Alejandro, Cristóbal Anguita, Maximiliano Daigre, Paulina Arce, Rodrigo Vega, Guillermo Luna-Jorquera, Matías Portflitt-Toro, Cristián G. Suazo, Diego Miranda-Urbina, and Mauricio Ulloa. 2021. Spatial and temporal patterns of beached seabirds along the Chilean coast: Linking mortalities with commercial fisheries. Biological Conservation 256: 109026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109026.
32 Mood, A., and P. Brooke. 2023. Fishcount.org.uk.


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