Algerian barb

Luciobarbus callensis

Luciobarbus callensis (Algerian barb)
Distribution
Distribution map: Luciobarbus callensis (Algerian barb)

least concern



Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: C | 1.0 (2022-12-18)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.


Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

First published: 2022-12-18
Version information:
  • Appearance: C
  • Major version 1 published: 2022-12-18

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Luciobarbus callensis (Farm: Short Profile). In: fair-fish database, ed. fair-fish. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-12-18. Version C | 1.0. https://fair-fish-database.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Luciobarbus callensis
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Luciobarbus callensis is a freshwater BENTHOPELAGIC fish that is naturally found in north-west Africa, being widespread from Tunisia to the Kebir River drainage in eastern Algeria. It is a subtropical barb inhabiting lentic aquatic ecosystems, but also running waters, thus including lakes, estuaries, but also rivers, with a high adaptability to some artificial systems. This species has adapted to life in the littoral of reservoirs and is considered a species of Least Concern by IUCN. L. callensis is an important cyprinid species for aquaculture purposes worldwide due to its abundance, availability all year round, tasteful flesh, and economic value. This barb is the basic catch of local fisheries in areas from north Algeria, being an important source of protein for the inhabitants of rural communities both in Algeria and Tunisia. Despite that, important wild information about this barb to better evaluate its welfare in captivity is still missing, like home range use, depth range use, and natural aggregation patterns. Furthermore, almost no farming information specifically about this species is available, making it difficult to assess and improve its welfare in farms.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 1; tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 1; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 1; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m(4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m ∅ 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.



2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: rivers: 0.2-1 m 2 with unclear depth range use.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 1; tanks: 1.2 m 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: BENTHIC 3BENTHOPELAGIC 4; caught in littoral and pelagic zones 5. Reservoir: 13 m 6, max 47m 5 with unclear depth range use. Rivers: 0.2-1 m 2 with unclear depth range use.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD LARVAE and FRY.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 1; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 1; breeding tanks: 1 m 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.



3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 7 8 9.

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: fresh water 2 4.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: 9-15 h PHOTOPERIOD 10 3 9 11 6 12 13 5 14 15 4, 6.6-29.6 °C 10 8  11 16, 10-40 °C 2, fresh water 10 3 9 11 6 12 13 5 14 15 4. River: 0.34-0.73‰ 11 or 0.1-3.2 g/L 10, adjust to brackish water 3.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: fresh water, 9-15 h PHOTOPERIOD 10 3 9 11 6 12 13 5 14 15 4, 6.6-29.6 °C 10 8 9 11 16, 10-40 °C 2, fresh water 10 3 9 11 6 12 13 5 14 15 4. River: salinity: 0.34-0.73‰ 11, 0.1-3.2 g/L 10, adjust to brackish water 3. Migrate from rivers to reservoirs during dry season (summer) 9.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: 11-15 h PHOTOPERIOD 9 6 13, 18-27 °C 9, fresh water 4. Migrate from reservoirs to rivers for spawning (upstream) 8 9.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES: does not apply.

ADULTS: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: mature at 2 years for males and 3 years for females 2, but females also reported to be mature slightly earlier than males 13. Spawning season: March-August 3 8 9 11 12 13 with peak April-May 13, but also reported only in April 2. Sex ratio: 1 male:0.3-0.8 females 8 9 11 13 or 1 male:4.8 females, with monthly variations, but always with more females than males 12.
  • FARM: for carps in general, in storage tanks, spawners are kept separated by sex 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: rivers: 0.05-0.15 IND/m2 2 17; reservoirs: 12.7-42 IND/m2 5.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: rivers: 0.05 IND/m2 2.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well. 
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: rivers: mainly stones, pebbles, gravel 2.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILDBENTHOPELAGIC 4. Rivers: cobbles, gravels, sand, muddy sediments 10 17, mainly stones, pebbles, gravel 2. High turbidity 3.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: rivers: mainly stones, pebbles, gravel 2. Prefer gravel 18-9.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARMLARVAE: for carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM: common slaughter method: for the related Cyprinus carpio, 85% are sold alive, of the 15% processed in plants 19, the common methods are a) asphyxia (followed by evisceration 19 or percussive killing 20), b) percussive stunning (followed by evisceration 19 21, gill cut or destruction of the heart 21), and c) electrical stunning (followed by evisceration 19 21, gill cut or destruction of the heart 21). Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well. High-standard slaughter method: for C. carpio, electrical plus percussive stunning (followed by evisceration, gill cut or destruction of the heart) 21 or immersion in clove oil (followed by percussive killing 20). Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to L. callensis as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 22, level 5 being fully domesticated.




Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes:

  • WILD: omnivorous 2 3.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHIC = living at the bottom of a body of water, able to rest on the floor
BENTHOPELAGIC = living and feeding near the bottom of a body of water, floating above the floor
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 22
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults during the spawning season; in farms: adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



Bibliography


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2 Penczak, T., and M. Molinski. 1984. Fish production in Oued Sebaou, a seasonal river in North Algeria. Journal of Fish Biology 25: 723–732. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1984.tb04918.x.
3 Kraiem, M. M. 1996. The diet of Barbus callensis (cyprinidae) in Northern, Tunisia. Cybium 20: 75–85.
4 Froese, R., and D. Pauly. 2022. Luciobarbus callensis, Algerian barb: fisheries, aquaculture. World Wide Web electronic publication. FishBase.
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10 Berrebi, P., M. M. Kraiem, I. Doadrio, S. El Gharbi, and G. Cattaneo-Berrebi. 1995. Ecological and genetic differentiation of Barbus callensis populations in Tunisia. Journal of Fish Biology 47: 850–864. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1995.tb06007.x.
11 Morsi, A., F. Mimeche, and M. Biche. 2015. Age structure and growth of Algerian barbel Luciobarbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842) (Cyprinidae) in El-Harrach River (North of Algeria). AACL Bioflux 8: 475–484.
12 Mouaissia, W., N. Kaouachi, C. Boualleg, M. Tolba, N. Khelifi, F. Sahtout, and M. Bensouilah. 2017. Reproductive biology of Algerian barb Luciobarbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842) (Cyprinidae) in Beni Haroun dam, north-east of Algeria 10: 1671–1682.
13 Aberkane, B., L. Touazi, and M. Iguer-ouada. 2018. Reproduction of Algerian Barbel Luciobarbus callensis (Cyprinidae) in the Agrioun River, Algeria. Journal of Ichthyology 58: 851–856. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945218060012.
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20 Rahmanifarah, K., B. Shabanpour, and A. Sattari. 2011. Effects of Clove Oil on Behavior and Flesh Quality of Common Carp  (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Comparison with Pre-slaughter CO2 Stunning, Chilling and Asphyxia. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 11: 139–147.
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