Ffresh to brackish water
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The production of Perca fluviatilis has emerged over the past decades while important biological processes of the species are not known yet. The low FishEthoScore is mainly due to this big gap of knowledge in several characteristics, such as the dependence on fish in the diet, home and depth needs and needs of substrate. Tanks or raceways will most probably not fulfill space needs in intensive conditions. Further research is needed on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices in order to provide recommendations for improving fish welfare.