Bonylip barb

Osteochilus vittatus

Osteochilus vittatus (Bonylip barb)
Distribution
no distribution map available
least concern



Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: C | 1.0 (2022-12-29)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.


Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

First published: 2022-12-29
Version information:
  • Appearance: C
  • Major version 1 published: 2022-12-29

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Osteochilus vittatus (Farm: Short Profile). In: fair-fish database, ed. fair-fish. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-12-29. Version C | 1.0. https://fair-fish-database.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Osteochilus vittatus
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Osteochilus vittatus is an Asian freshwater tropical barb that naturally inhabits Indochina, Thailand, and Indonesia. It is a BENTHOPELAGIC fish that is usually found in large streams with slow-moving waters and muddy to sandy substrate, but also occurs in rivers, ponds, floodplains, and reservoirs. This cyprinid can be used as a biological agent to reduce the blooming of phytoplankton. Although O. vittatus has slow growth and bony meat, it has a good taste, high protein and calcium content, and a strategic value as a source of food without cholesterol, resulting in substantial economic value. It is also attractive as an ornamental fish. O. vittatus is classified as a Least Concern species by IUCN yet threats to its natural populations include overfishing, damming rivers, sand mining, habitat loss, habitat degradation (including eutrophycation), and introduction of exotic FISHES. This cyprinid can be cultured extensively or polycultured with other species, such as Cyprinus carpio, Oreochomis niloticus or Osphronemus goramy, but thereby lowering its productivity. Regarding the welfare assessment of this species, wild information for a better evaluation is still missing, especially about home range and aggregation patterns and about more specific information for eggs, larvae, fry, and spawners. Moreover, farming information about aggression, stress response, and malformations as well as more specific information for larvae, fry, and spawners is also missing.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 1; tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: lakes: 1,200,000-27,700,000 m2 2 3 with unclear home range use.
  • FARM: biofloc systems: fiber tubs: 0.2 m2 (0.6 x 0.4 m) 4; synthetic sheet ponds: 4 m2 (2 x 2 m) 5.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: concrete tanks: 8 m2 (4 x 2 m) 6 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS); ground ponds: 150 m2 (10 x 15 m) 7 (for wild-caught ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 1; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 1; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m2 (4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m ∅ 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.



2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: fiber tubs: 0.2 m 6.
  • LAB: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 1; tanks: 1.2 m 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILDBENTHOPELAGIC 8 found at 5 m 9-8, but also in lakes of <2 m 10, preferring shallow waters 11. Lakes: mean 4.4 m (littoral), rivers: mean 2.9 m, reservoirs: mean 5.5 m (littoral) 12 all with unclear depth range use. Lakes: range 1.5-2.5 m 2 or 9-13 m 2 3 with unclear depth range use.
  • FARM: biofloc systems: fiber tubs: 0.6 m 4; synthetic sheet ponds: 0.5 m 5.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: concrete tanks: 0.7 m 6 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS); ground ponds: 1 m 7 (for wild-caught ADULTS to become SPAWNERS). For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 1; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 1 breeding tanks: 1 m 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.



3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 13 14 6.

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: 11-13 h PHOTOPERIOD 15 16 11 2 3 17 8, 18-28.3 °C 18-8 12 11 15 17, fresh water 15 16 11 2 3 17 8. Migrate to flooded areas during the onset of the flood season 13 11, probably for feeding 3, migrate back to permanent water as flooded lands dry up 8.
  • FARM: synthetic sheet ponds: mean 27.3-28.7 °C 5.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: 11-13 h PHOTOPERIOD 16 11 2 3 17 8, 18-28 °C 18-8 12 11 17, fresh water 16 11 2 3 17 8. Migrate to flooded areas during the onset of the flood season 13 11, probably for feeding 3, migrate back to its river habitats at the end of the monsoon season 13 11
  • FARM: concrete tanks: 26-28 °C 6 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: 12-13 h PHOTOPERIOD, fresh water 11. Migrate to flooded areas during the onset of the flood season 13 11, probably for spawning or feeding 3, migrate back to its river habitats at the end of the monsoon season 13 11
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a high amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES: does not apply.

ADULTS: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: mature at ~9 month old 19-11. Overall populational sex ratio: 0.8-3.9 females:1 male 2. Spawn all year around 11, but mainly during rising waters at the rainy/flood season 13 11; partial spawners 12 11
  • FARM: can be mature at 6 months 20; sex ratio: 1 female:2 males 7 21. Hormonal manipulation to induce spawning 7 6 21 20 22, followed by stripping and artificial fertilisation 7 21. IND are kept together 21, but also separated by sex 7 – as carps are in general 1. Separated by sex after hormonal manipulation 21.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/mfor FRY in breeding ponds 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: biofloc systems: fiber tubs: 0.09 IND/L 4; synthetic sheet ponds: 0.05-0.13 IND/L, with better growth and survival at the lowest density 5.
  • LAB: 50-125 IND/m2 with diffuser aerator – better growth at the highest densities, but better survival at the lowest density 23.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: concrete tanks: 0.02 IND/L 6 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. 10 IND/container 20.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, no aggression reported in polycultures 1.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: fiber tubs 6 or plastic jars 7 21, probably without substrate. For carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: rivers: found in turbid waters 10 mainly with gravel and sand substrates (rocks are rare) 15 and attached to brush piles, tree roots and other solid objects 24-8. Lakes: rocky substrate 12, phytoplankton and aquatic plants dominated by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with 40-60 IND/m2 (height ≤0.5 m) 2. Rivers: gravel and karakal 12. Reservoirs: mud 12 and inundated terrestrial macrophytes during the seasons of high water levels 25.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: rivers: found in turbid waters 10 with muddy to sandy substrate 9-8 and attached to brush piles, tree roots, and other solid objects in rivers 24-8. Lakes: rocky substrate 12, phytoplankton and aquatic plants dominated by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with 40-60 IND/m2 (height ≤0.5 m) 2. Rivers: gravel and karakal 12. Reservoirs: mud 12 and inundated terrestrial macrophytes during the seasons of high water levels 25.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, malformations of LARVAE due to insufficient nutrition 1. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM: common slaughter method: marketed fresh (besides being used to make prahoc) 24, so probably asphyxia. For the related Cyprinus carpio, 85% are sold alive, of the 15% processed in plants 26, the common methods are a) asphyxia (followed by evisceration 26 or percussive killing 27), b) percussive stunning (followed by evisceration 26 28, gill cut or destruction of the heart 28), and c) electrical stunning (followed by evisceration 26 28, gill cut or destruction of the heart 28). Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well. High-standard slaughter method: for C. carpio, electrical plus percussive stunning (followed by evisceration, gill cut or destruction of the heart) 28 or immersion in clove oil (followed by percussive killing 27). Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to O. vittatus as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 29, level 5 being fully domesticated.




Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes:

  • WILD: omnivorous 8 and detritivorous 30 25, but mainly herbivorous 30 11.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LABFRY: fish oil may be not replaced by sustainable sources 31.



Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHOPELAGIC = living and feeding near the bottom of a body of water, floating above the floor
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 29
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FISHES = Using "fishes" instead of "fish" for more than one individual - whether of the same species or not - is inspired by Jonathan Balcombe who proposed this usage in his book "What a fish knows". By referring to a group as "fishes", we acknowledge the individuals with their personalities and needs instead of an anonymous mass of "fish".
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults during the spawning season; in farms: adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



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